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Guide to the properties of filaments for 3D printing


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The guide covers in detail the physical and mechanical properties of BCN3D filaments as well as their resistance to impact, heat and water.

Guide to the properties of filaments for 3D printing

The 3D printing process begins long before the button to start printing is pressed. When the range of applications is very wide, from food packaging to industrial machinery, it is very important to choose materials according to their physical and mechanical properties and it is worth considering whether impact, heat or chemical resistance is required.

Physical and mechanical properties

3D printing materials can be categorized based on their stress versus strain curve.

PLA is one of the most popular filaments used for FFF printing. This material is ideal for both beginners and professionals. It is used in the production of figurines, gadgets and in prototyping. Compared to ABS filament, its melting point during printing is lower and does not emit harmful vapors. PLA is a stiff and highly deformation-resistant material that is also brittle - which determines its use mainly for the purposes of visual prototyping.

ABS is a technical material characterized by high durability. ABS has a high shrinkage during printing. In order for the printed model to be successful, a high printing temperature (240ºC - 260ºC) and a heated working table (80ºC - 110ºC) should be used. ABS is a hard and chemical resistant material, so it is less prone to cracking, which makes it perfect for the production of moving parts and elements used in industry.

PA is a semi-flexible material characterized by high impact resistance and the ability to work at temperatures up to 120 ° C for a long time. PA has good oil and alkali resistance and has an initial degree of stiffness with low deformation and is able to withstand significant deformation before failure.

TPU is a flexible material resistant to large deformations and impacts. TPU has the properties of rubber, which makes the prints extremely flexible and durable. Ideally suited to, for example, the production of car parts.

General tensile behavior of various materials General tensile behavior of various materials

All BCN3D materials except PP have a tensile strength greater than 25 MPa, making them ideal materials for creating structural parts.

PP is a hard, flexible and chemically resistant material that is also safe for contact with food. Thanks to its properties, it has a wide range of applications.

The most tensile-resistant materials in the BCN3D portfolio are PLA and PAHT CF15.

PAHT CF15 is a high-temperature carbon fiber reinforced material that is characterized by the ability to work at high temperatures and chemical resistance.

Comparison of the maximum tensile strength of BCN3D materials Comparison of the maximum tensile strength of BCN3D materials

The chart below shows the unique elastomeric properties of TPU 98A filament. PA and PP materials behave like semi-elastic materials, and PET-G has a good elongation of 23%, which gives an overall better mechanical profile compared to PLA.

PET-G is a material characterized by high strength and flexibility. Perfect for the production of handles and parts resistant to grease, petrol and oils.

PAHT CF15 and PP GF30 materials have a low elongation at break due to the stiffness provided by the added fibers.

Comparison of elongation at break of BCN3D materials Comparison of elongation at break of BCN3D materials

In terms of stiffness, composite fibers work best: PAHT CF15 with a modulus of 5.1 GPa and PP GF30 with 2.6 GPa. Carbon and glass fibers provide high dimensional stability, preventing slippage of the polymer chains and thus reducing the plasticity of the mixture.

Comparison of Young's modulus of BCN3D materials Comparison of Young's modulus of BCN3D materials

Impact resistance

The graph below shows the impact energy of BCN3D filaments, expressed in KJ / m2. The first thing that catches the eye is the high impact energy of PA, resulting from its elasticity and semi-crystalline nature. However, PA is not stiff, and for applications where a combination of stiffness and strength is required, in this case ABS is the ideal solution.

Comparison of the impact resistance of BCN3D materials Comparison of the impact resistance of BCN3D materials

Temperature

The following graph shows the heat-deflection temperature of BCN3D materials. Filaments PP GF30 and PAHT can be exposed to temperatures above 100ºC, while ABS and PA materials are suitable for intermediate conditions. Basic BCN3D filaments cannot be exposed to high temperatures.

Deflection temperature under load (0.45 MPa) of BCN3D materials Deflection temperature under load (0.45 MPa) of BCN3D materials

Chemicals

Chemicals and water can do a lot of damage. Therefore, for acid resistance, see materials such as PP and PP GF30. PP, PP GF30 and PET-G materials are waterproof, while PP and PP GF30 filaments are recommended when in contact with solvents.

Chemical resistance of BCN3D materials Chemical resistance of BCN3D materials

Assessing material properties and choosing the right filament should always be at the top of the list when creating a perfect print.

Source: bcn3d.com

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